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Supported Research

Lock, Stock, and Barrel: How American Gun Culture and Manufacturing Created the Modern World.

The applicant informs as follows:

The applicant is responding to a new book entitled "The Gunning of America," in which the author contends that firearms were a much less significant part of our Nation's history than they are often held to be. The applicant has written books and articles challenging such published assertions before, including a book entitled Armed America. The applicant also played a core role in demolishing Michael Bellesiles' Arming America, which falsely asserted that guns and gun culture were rare and tightly regulated in early America. The applicant travelled to Hartford, Connecticut to review some of the Colt Company and Samuel Colt correspondence cited by Haag and its immediate context. The applicant concluded that Haag's characterizations are grossly wrong.

The applicant has also written a 40,000 word book on early American gunsmithing and manufacturing and the revolutionary effects the tools and processes they created had on creating the modern world. The final chapter will be "The Myth of Manufacturing Demand" and demonstrate the gross errors in Haag's book.

The applicant has also written three related law review articles.

Greenwood Publishing Group, under its Praeger Press imprint, will be publishing his book about gun culture in early America and the myth of gun marketing, Lock, Stock, and Barre: How American Gun Culture and Manufacturing Created the Modern World, in 2018. It includes chapters that refute revisionist claims about the absence of early American gun culture and Haag's claims about gun makers creating a gun culture through marketing.

The applicant further informed that an unpublished paper of his, resulting in part from research and writing conducted pursuant to the NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund grant, has been cited in other published works. Jacobs, James and Fuhr, Zoe, The Potential and Limitations of Universal Background Checking for Gun Purchasers (April 28, 2017); Wake Forest Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2017 Forthcoming); NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 17-13. Available at SSRN: (citing the applicant's unpublished paper paper about universal background checks approvingly, pointing out serious flaws with Dr. Webster's claims about repeal of Missouri's UBC law.

Furthermore, the Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy has published the applicant's law review article entitled Congressional Authority to Pass Concealed Carry Reciprocity Legislation, which, the applicant informs, is based in part on the research conducted with the NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund grant. Abstract: "Congress is considering passage of national concealed carry legislation requiring all states to recognize concealed weapon licenses issued by any state, rather like the way that every state recognizes driver's licenses issued by another state. Are there any constitutional problems with such legislation? What practical problems might result? This paper seeks to answer those questions."

Mass Murderers: Who? How? Why?

The applicant is writing a new book tentatively called Mass Murderers: Who? How? Why? The gun prohibitionists are inaccurately blaming guns for the mass murders. The book addresses the question of whether gun ownership-and specifically ownership of "assault weapons"-causes acts of mass murder. The applicant will also address mass murders across the world, including mass murders in countries that have restrictive firearms laws. The book will also address the use of explosives and other non-firearm weapons. The applicant will discuss the causal factors related to mass murders and to show that there is no correlation between access to firearms and mass murders.

One chapter seemed especially suited to a law review article countering the gun prohibitionists' argument that certain classes of firearms make the U.S. exceptional in mass murder problems. The title: "Mass Murder: American Unexceptionalism." It is currently available at The applicant will be submitting it to law reviews shortly. It is also available at With some revisions it will be part of the Southern Illinois University Law School's 10th anniversary of Heller symposium in April 2018.

Gun Control in Nazi Occupied France: A Story of Registration, Confiscation, Firing Squads, and Resistance.

The applicant informs as follows:

The applicant received a grant to complete a book entitled The Nazi Occupation of France. His work distilled material from archives and published sources into book chapters, and prepared a manuscript, reorganizing and rewriting each chapter into a coherent, readable form.

More recently, the applicant has been working on completing the book, focusing on the use of gun registration for confiscation and of a ban on guns with "military" features for emasculating a population. He has completed a rough draft and is now in the process of getting comments, rewriting, rechecking sources, searching for illustrations, and pursuing review with a publisher. The title will be Gun Control in Nazi Occupied France: A Story of Registration, Confiscation, Firing Squads, and Resistance.

This book will be a sequel to the applicant's book Gun Control in the Third Reich: Disarming the Jews and "Enemies of the State, which has also been published in German and French editions this year.

The book recounts the experiences of France, one of the European countries that the dissenters in Heller and McDonald wish to emulate. These issues were hotly debated during the Gun Control Act of 1968 and "assault weapon" bans.

The book is based on French and German archives, interviews, diaries, and other neglected historical sources. It recounts the failure of proposals for the right to keep and bear arms in 1789, the 1935 ban on "military" firearms and the registration of firearms and firearm owners, and the 1940 Nazi decreed confiscation of all firearms and death penalty for anyone who failed to turn in their firearms within 24 hours. "In sum, France had no constitutional guarantee of the right to keep and bear arms such as would preclude gun bans and registration of gun owners. When subjected to a tyrannical occupation, intrusive firearm regulations were used to disarm the subjects and prevent resistance."

The applicant informs that, during this reporting period, the book has been copy-edited and that the applicant is now completing his final review of the changes. The book is expected to be published by The Independent Institute in the first quarter of 2018.

Symposium and Law review, Southern Illinois University.

The applicant will participate in a symposium relating to District of Columbia v. Heller, organized by Southern Illinois University. Submitted material swill be published in the SIU Law Review. The applicant will address two themes: (1) The legal chaos which is resulting from numerous circuit splits and the Supreme Court's repeated denials of certiorari. (2) The need to apply heightened standards of review.

Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act Article.

The applicant has been granted funding to write an article outlining the constitutional justifications for the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act, including the Commerce Clause, the Second Amendment, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Militia Clauses.

Ex Post Facto research.

The applicant has been granted funding to write a law review article examining whether the firearm-related consequences of a conviction can be increased after the offense or the conviction. The applicant believes that this poses an ex post facto problem. Traditionally, that doctrine forbids (1) retroactively criminalizing conduct, or (2) retroactively increasing punishments. Lautenberg has been challenged under both, and courts have upheld it by ruling that: (1) it relates to future actions, namely, possessing a firearm; and, (2) it is a regulation of future conduct, not a punishment.

However, the applicant's research has revealed a third type of ex post facto law: one that "makes an offense greater than it was, at the time it was committed." This refers to the civil consequences of an offense, not to its criminal punishment. The applicant argues that this would clearly apply to the loss of a fundamental constitutional right.

Pro-Second Amendment historians and political scientists.

The applicant is organizing the names and contact information of historians and political scientists, who are sympathetic to the individualist reading of the Second Amendment. The applicant has dichotomized the original document into separate lists of historians, political scientists, and persons in the legal profession, and others.

Southern Illinois University School of Law.

The applicant received a grant for the purchase of books to be used in his Second Amendment scholarship as a law professor the Southern Illinois University School of Law.